INNOVATION March-April 2015

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We think that a comprehensive study should be carried out for alternative routes. For example, Roberts Bank, adjacent to the BC Ferry Tsawwassen Terminal, may present a significantly safer alternative because it is much closer to the open ocean and offers fewer obstacles. It could also handle larger tankers, in the VLCC class, with a capacity of 360,000 DWT tonnes, resulting in fewer required vessels. There is no risk-free project, but there is a need to re- evaluate the risk associated with this proposal and with any probably safer alternatives.

A Need to Re-evaluate Risk In an Innovation article published in October 2012 (“Risks Associated with Tanker Transports for the Northern Gateway Project”), we outlined our concerns about the Northern Gateway Project and the proposed transportation of dilbit (diluted bitumen) by tanker from Kitimat. We considered the potential hazard of a spill in coastal BC waters. Currently, we have turned our attention towards the risk implied by Kinder Morgan’s Trans Mountain Expansion (TMX) project in Vancouver. Aframax-class vessels carrying dilbit would leave their depot in Eastern Burrard Inlet, and negotiate several narrow passages including the first and second narrows before reaching the open ocean. The proposed expansion will allow for a substantial increase in the number of tanker trips to one per day, each way. As outlined in our letter of comment to the National Energy Board of October 17, 2014, the risks estimated by Kinder Morgan, with all their proposed mitigation strategies, correspond to a probability of 10% of at least one dilbit spill of 8.250 million litres over a 50-year operating life, which is unacceptable in our view. In addition, there is a need to also consider the consequences of a tanker collision with any of the existing bridges, as specified in the Canadian Highway Bridge Code S6.

Ricardo Foschi, P.Eng., Vancouver, BC Peter Hatfield, P.Eng., Vancouver, BC Chris Peter, P.Eng., Prince George, BC Brian Gunn P.Eng, Campbell River, BC Key Indicators of Global Warming

I read with interest J.E. Christoffersen’s letter in the January is- sue of Innovation and disagree with his comments. The increase in energy absorption by the Earth does not lead directly to large increases in the atmospheric temperature. One of the major concerns and indicators has been the disappearance of the ice in the Arctic and the massive shrinkage of the world’s glaciers. There is also the high increase in water vapour in the atmo- sphere leading to major rain and snow storms throughout the world.

One of the interesting aspects of the ice melting and largely ignored by most commentators is that when ice melts, say in a cool drink, the temperature of the fluid does not change but stays close to 0⁰C due to latent heat, so atmospher- ic temperature increase is moderated by this factor. In addition, the latent heat of water vaporisation is even greater than that of the latent heat required in melting ice. So, if these two characteristics are considered, temperature increases are not necessary to indicate global warm- ing. The key indicators are the massive ice melt and the increase in atmospheric water content. For me, these are indicators that mankind and its actions are clearly af- fecting our weather. The increased CO 2 absorption by the oceans is changing the PH value to the detriment of the shellfish, and the movement of plants and animals to formerly too cool areas are examples.

Timothy Phelan Vice President - Water Treatment Opus is pleased to announce the appointment of Timothy Phelan, P.Eng, PE., as Vice President - Water Treatment, Opus DaytonKnight. Tim is a water treatment specialist and the Manager of the Opus

Kelowna branch office. Throughout his 23 year career, he has worked on large projects in British Columbia, California, Arizona and Oregon. Tim joined Opus DaytonKnight in January, 2013 after 20 years with a US consultant. He is currently the Project Manager for Metro Vancouver’s CoquitlamWater Treatment Plant Improvement Project and the District of Sicamous Mara Lake Water Treatment Plant Project. Tim will continue acting as Branch Manager for Opus’s Kelowna Office, providing municipal engineering services to the greater Okanagan and Kootenay areas, as well as leading the Drinking Water Treatment Group. Head Office: 210 – 889 Harbourside Drive, North Vancouver, BC, V7P 3S1 t. +1 604-990-4800 e.


M A R CH/A P R I L 2 015

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